Step 1: Empathize [1.1f]
The purpose of step one is to conduct interviews that give you an idea about what people really care about. We need to empathize with their situation. [1.2]
For example, if you want to help old people, you might find that they want to keep the ability to walk around.  In your conversations, they might share with you different ways they can do that.  Later into the interview you'll want to dig a little deeper, look for personal stories or situations where things became difficult.  Ideally, you redo the process with many people with the same problem.